In the photo - mushroom Penicilliopsis clavariiformis . Although it resembles a plant much more, especially since it grows from the seeds of fruits that have fallen to the ground. From a seed affected by a parasitic fungus, slightly branched cylindrical 3-3-332 rise up. Coremia 3-3-33296. , or cinnemas (see 3-3-3331. Synnema 3-3-33296.), - fused into a column or column 3-3-3333. gifs. . They grow up to 2-7 cm and can have various color shades - from olive to ocher. On koremias, asexual reproduction structures are formed - 3–3–335. conidiophores 3-3-33296. with conidia (disputes of asexual reproduction). Often have Penicilliopsis clavariiformis 3-3-3341 also develop in parallel. sclerotia (fungal structures serving to wait out adverse conditions) in which 3–3–343 are formed without any rest period. fruiting bodies with bags (3-3-345. Askeys 3-3-33296.) and 3-3-334. ascospores 3-3-33296. (spores of sexual reproduction).


Koremia Penicilliopsis clavariiformis grow from seed. The spores of the fungus persist in the soil and fall on the fallen fruit, germinate and affect the seeds inside it; of these seeds, koremia (already under the shell of the fetus, then go outside) and sclerotia are already developing. Photo © Daniel Guez from

The first description of the form Penicilliopsis clavariiformis was published by in the annals of Bogorsk Botanical Garden (island 3-3-377. Java 3-3-33296., Indonesia) for 1887 by the German botanist 3-3-3379. German zu Solms-Laubach ( Hermann zu Solms-Laubach ), Who discovered a mushroom there, in the garden, on the fallen fruits of Diospyros macrophylla from the family ebony . Species epithet 3-3-33299. clavariiformis [/i] comes from an external resemblance to mushrooms of the genus 3-3-33299. Clavaria , [/i] his [/i] can be translated as “clavarioid” or “clavarioid”.


Penicilliopsis clavariiformis on the seeds Diospyros macrophylla . 1 , 3 , 4 - koremia on the top of the seeds . 2 - forming sclerotia on the bottom of the seeds. Figure from Annales du Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg , 1887

Solms-Laubach not only studied in detail the morphology and physiology of the fungus, noting its similarity with species from the genus 3-3-3137. penicillin (3-3-33299. Penicillium 3-3-33300.), But also with his colleague conducted a series of experiments, finding out that the pigment extracted from 3-3-33299. Penicilliopsis clavariiformis , shows an interesting optical behavior - changes color from gray-yellow to dark brown and has a strong orange-red fluorescence 3-3-33296. . The pigment was called "mycoporphyrin", but upon returning to Europe, it was not possible to obtain a live fungus culture for further research.

The structure of mycoporphyrin has been disclosed. in 1940 when it was possible to choose a suitable nutrient medium for studying the fungus in the laboratory. As a result, a pigment called penicilliopsin (3–3–3149. Penicilliopsin 3–3–3296.) Was isolated and studied, which turned out to be similar in chemical structure to the pigment 3–3–3151. hypericum - hypericin used to treat Depression 3-3-33296. .


Koremia Penicilliopsis clavariiformis on solid nutrient medium in Petri dish . The powdery mass of spores is clearly visible. Photo © Irina Aldobaeva

Now the genus Penicilliopsis include to the family Aspergillaceae . The genus contains eight species that live in tropical rainforests around the world, from 3-3-3187. Ecuador to Africa and Indonesia.


Penicilliopsis clavariiformis : 18 - Coremia and sclerotia (indicated by 3–3–3299. By arrows 3–3–3300.) On the seed 3–3–3213. persimmons multi-colored (3-3-33299. Diospyros discolor 3-3-33300.); 19 - a bag; 20 - ascospores; 21 - ascospores (view from the end); 22 - ascospore in scanning electron microscope (SAM); 23 - 25 - conidia (23 - light microscope, 24–25 - SEM); 26 - conidiogenic structures of coremia; 27 - colony on solid nutrient medium in Petri dish after a week of growth. The length of the scale segments is : 18 - 5 mm, 19 - 21 , 23 , 26 - 10 ?m, 22 , 24 - 25 - 2 ?m, 27 - 10 mm. Image from an article by Huei-Mei Hsieh, Yu-Ming Ju, 2002. Penicilliopsis pseudocordyceps , the holomorph of Pseudocordyceps seminicola , and notes on Penicilliopsis clavariiformis

Surprisingly, the genus Penicilliopsis , with its notable bright koremias and often found in tropical forests, so few scientific papers have been devoted. The authors of one of the reviews suggest that koremia Penicilliopsis so large and noticeable that most field mycologists take them for 3-3-33277. mosses or cocks. and not mushrooms, and just pass by.

Mushroom Penicilliopsis clavariiformis compared to human palms

Photo © Shawn O'Donnell from , national park Ankarafantsika , Madagascar, February 122017.

Evgeny Antonov

11 май 2020 /
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