Fluffy buzzed

Fluffy buzzed

This fluffy animal, similar to a kitten or a teddy bear with wings, which one wants to squeeze in a rush of tenderness, belongs to the family. fly-buzzing (Bombyliidae). Representatives of this family are rightly called one of the prettiest flies in the world. Pretending to bees and bumblebees, they rush from flower to flower, sucking nectar with their long proboscis. However, a real horror is hidden behind this beautiful facade: at the larval stage, 3–3–327 buzzed. parasitoid lifestyle by eating the offspring of their bee prototypes alive, as well as many other insects, including larvae. ant lions .

Everyone who self-insulated this spring in a summer house near Moscow has a great opportunity to get acquainted with buzzing flies belonging to the genus 3-3-33275. Bombylius [/i] . The most common type of bombing in our area - buzzing large ( Bombylius major ), It is him you see in the main photo. These flies, like small fluffy lumps, fly in zigzags over sunny clearings and along roadsides, from time to time sitting down to rest on dry foliage. In temperate latitudes, bombs are active in March-April, and increased fluffiness helps them warm up faster and keep warm, which is especially important for creatures with active, maneuverable flight. Actually, for the same reason, bumblebees, which are one of the first pollinating insects to wake up after winter, also boast of thick “wool”. It is estimated that due to the hairline, bumblebees shorten heat loss twice.

The buzzing drink nectar

A proboscis of impressive size (5–9 mm in length) allows the bombilla to suck out nectar from the long bell-shaped corollas 3–3–351. Lungworms but they do not disdain the other primroses such as Chistyak , coltsfoot and anemone . Thus, according to their life strategy, bombs, like many others buzzed, are nectarophagous generalists who are not rigidly attached to any one kind of plant. Unlike bees and heavy bumblebees, bombilli do not linger for a long time on one flower, they are constantly in a state of some kind of feverish activity, as if they set a goal to try as many sources of nectar as possible per unit of time. This makes bombilli good pollinators, but, on the other hand, their haste does not always benefit plants: hovering over a flower for a couple of seconds and lowering its proboscis, they drink a portion of nectar, but do not have time to smear in pollen. The victims of such a "robbery" most often become flowers with an open, wheel-shaped rim.

Fluffy buzzed

A long proboscis buzzed well suited for sucking nectar from flowers with a deep tubular corolla, but they willingly visit other types of flowers. The photo was buzzing big. Photo © P. Moraleja Molina from flickr.com

Bombilius and other buzzing buzz not only nectar, but also pollen. To collect it, they have a special device in the form of hairs with a bulbous thickening at the end, located on the front legs. The tinder was buzzed with the paws of the stamens and then the collected pollen was transferred to 3–3–387. Labella , modified lower labial palps with which their proboscis ends. Especially females, which need this valuable source of protein for egg maturation, run on pollen. And they have 3-3-3389 eggs. set aside a lot - up to 1000-3000 per day. The whole abdomen of the female was buzzed with ovaries: in fact, it was a flying egg factory, which, in between visits to flowers, had to have time to spread its “products” along the soil surface.

Fluffy buzzed

Mating buzzing Bombylius major, the male sits above, the female below. The male bombers and many other genera buzzed easily by holoptic (closing at the top) eyes, while females had dichoptic eyes (separated by a gap). Photo © Vicente J. B. from flickr.com

The buzzing eggs are deadly packages intended for soil larvae and pupae of various insects: bees, wasps, beetles, butterflies, as well as other 3-3-3119. dipterans . Cases are described when even predatory larvae of ant lions that build traps in the sand became buzzing victims. As you know, many parasitoids carry out the exact delivery of eggs: wasps- riders they are laid directly in the victim’s body, many parasitoid flies 3-3-3123. humpback (Phoridae) and tahini (Tachinidae) glue the eggs onto the surface of the target insect. But they buzzed more like carpet bombers: they drop eggs from the air, flying up to a potential target, for example, to the entrance to the underground mink of bees. However, they are not too picky: sometimes egg-throwing occurs just next to any dark spot, including depressions pressed into the ground by the finger of the experimenter.

The video shows mating buzzing and egg laying by the female

Like real bombers, bombiers and other advanced buzzers have a bomb compartment, the role of which is the so-called sand chamber. This unique organ is formed by invagination of the last segments of the abdomen. The entrance to the sand chamber is surrounded by tufts of bristles - it contains fine sand, which was hummed with buzz using powerful spikes sitting on special abdominal 3-3-3137. sclerites (acanthorophytes). Before going outside, an egg passes through a sand chamber, as a result of which a shell of tiny grains of sand encircles it, which is necessary to protect it from drying out.

Due to the fact that buzzing eggs do not deliver directly to the addressee, the hatched larvae themselves have to look for a victim. Such larvae of the first age, performing search functions, are called planidia (see Planidium ). The buzzing buzzers were equipped with pseudopods and pairs of long bristles and looked like tiny worms. When the planidium finds a suitable insect, it sticks mouth hooks into its body (modified jaws — 3-3-3323. Mandibles 3-3-33272.) And begins to slowly absorb the contents of the victim through the two holes formed until it kills it. That is, before us is a typical ectoparasitoid - an organism that makes its development on the covers of the hosts without penetrating into the internal tissues.

Fluffy buzzed

Buzzed Systoechus vulgaris , left - planidium, larva of the first age (top view and side view), right - larva of the third age. as - front spiracles , ps - posterior spiracles, abp - abdominal pseudopods. Figure from article V. L. Berg, 1940.3-3r3179. The external morphology of the immature stages of the bee fly, Systoechus vulgaris Loew (Diptera, Bombyliidae), a predator of grasshopper egg pods

Having stuck to the owner, the larva hummed and turns from a thin worm into a fat inactive sausage, bent in the form of the letter C. This type of development, in which the larvae of different ages sharply differ from each other, is called hypermetamorphosis . It is characteristic of many parasitoid insects with settlement larvae, such as 3-3-3191. retina mantispeids (Mantispidae; see picture of the day 3-3-3195. Mantispeids, spider egg fighters 3-3-33272.), 3-3-3197. bug bugs (Meloidae) and flies balls  (Acroceridae) and long tombs (Nemestrinidae), which were previously combined with buzzers in one superfamily.

If you are a small defenseless worm that faces death from starvation and dehydration, then you do not have to be too picky when choosing a victim. Whom you meet in the soil, jump on that one. Like their parents visiting a wide range of colors, the larvae buzzed are not narrow specialists. For example, bombilli parasitize on the larvae of bees of different families, and representatives of other genera may 3-3-3205. find victims even among various units. Perhaps because of this illegibility, it was buzzing in the number of species (about 5000 in total), significantly lagging behind other parasitoids, such as hornet wasps, in which speciation was spurred by specialization, when in the extreme case one species of parasitoid occurs for one species of victim.

Fluffy buzzed

As can be seen in the example of this sorceresses ( Anthrax ) Of the buzzing family, not all buzzing can boast long proboscis and thick hair. Photo © Judy Gallagher from flickr.com

Of course, most of the larvae buzzing die before reaching their destination, but there are enough survivors to seriously affect the victim's population. For example, when scientists discovered almost 1000 underground cells of bees - haliktid they are found that the bomb bombs made their way into 5.8% of them. In addition, it was buzzing from the genus Villa are among the main natural enemies of a dangerous pest - grain scoops . In some cases, the proportion of pupae of this butterfly infected with buzz is 10–30%. The buzz was not limited to this - some of them bust eggplant with locust eggs.

Humming is one of the oldest groups of Short-haired dipterans. The oldest member of this family is Palaeoplatypygus zaitzevi was found in sediments of an average Jurassic 3-3-33272. not far from Krasnoyarsk. It refers to Mythicomyiinae , the most primitive subfamily buzzed. Like a number of other basal subfamilies buzzed, the mitomyomyins did not acquire a sand chamber and continue to use the ovipositor when laying eggs. Some dipterologists even distinguish them in a separate family. It is to the mitomyomyins that all 3-3-33261 belong. Mesozoic buzzed. Judging by the fossil record, a sharp surge of diversity buzzed at the beginning of 3-3-33263. Cenozoic when the remaining modern subfamilies appear. Paleoentomologists bind its with a spread of flowering plants .

Photo © Jeff from flickr.com .

Alexander Khramov

11 май 2020 /
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