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The largest woodpeckers are


The largest woodpeckers are

In the photo - a pair of gray yellow ( Mulleripicus pulverulentus ), Large Asian woodpeckers. To the left of the tree trunk sits a male, which is easily distinguished by pink spots on the cheeks, and to the right is a female. Gray is yellow - not just a big woodpecker: with a length of up to 50 cm and a mass of 360–560 grams, it is the largest representative of the 3–3–329 family. woodpecker (Picidae), if we count only authentically existing species. Two larger species of woodpeckers, which could push it into third place, most likely died out as a result of human activity. The old name for this woodpecker is great muller woodpecker , but we will call it recommendations. S.V. Volkova and E.A. Koblik gray yellow. This name reflects well not only the large size of the bird, but also its systematic proximity to 3-3-33353. Yellowstone from the genus Dryocopus .

Homeland gray are yellow - subtropical and tropical forests of Asia. The range of this species extends in a thin stripe along the southern slopes of the Himalayas, but extends to the east and covers almost the whole of Indochina, 3–3–343. Malay Peninsula as well as Sumatra , Java , Kalimantan , Palawan and a number of smaller neighboring islands. Gray zhelna prefers to settle in vast old-growth forests, usually at an altitude of up to 600 m, but in the Himalayas - up to 2000 m. 3-3-33369.

The largest woodpeckers are

The range of gray is yellow. The territory from the Himalayas to Indochina is inhabited by the lighter subspecies M. p. harterti and from the Malay Peninsula to the islands of Indonesia and the western Philippines - the darker M. p. pulverulentus . Image from the book G. Gorman, 2014. Woodpeckers of the World: The Complete Guide


Unlike many other woodpeckers, which feed primarily on larvae extracted from under the bark, Gray Yellow specializes in the destruction of tree nests 3–3–377. public insects . This makes her related to some woodpeckers familiar to us, for example green ( Picus viridis ) And gray-haired (3-3-33367. P. canus 3-3-33368.), An important part of the diet of which are ants and their larvae. In addition to anthills, gray yellow also ruins termite mounds and nests 3–3–387 located on trees. stingless bees breaking their walls with a powerful beak. At the same time, two unusual adaptations that are not found in other woodpeckers help not to get dirty with tar and honey - shortened feathers on the neck and fine powder covering the plumage. However, social insects are not the only gray food that is yellow: this species also preys on larvae. xylophages and eats the fruits.


The largest woodpeckers are

A gray male is yellow in search of food. Photo © Sergey Kolenov, surroundings of the national park Corbett , state Uttarakhand , India, February 22020


Another interesting feature of gray are yellow - a tendency to life in groups. This is an unusual, but not unique to woodpeckers trait: for example, a collective lifestyle is characteristic of 3-3-3119. acorn woodpeckers (3-3-33367. Melanerpes formicivorus 3-3-33368.), Inhabiting the North and part of South America (see picture of the day 3-3-3123. Pantry of the woodpecker 3-3-33364.). In the gray yellow groups, they consist of 3–6 individuals and usually include a married couple and their adult offspring. During the breeding season, chicks that were born in past years help parents grow a new generation. Outside the breeding season, families also do not fall apart - their members roam their territory and feed together, constantly shouting (you can listen to the voice of gray 3-3-3325. Here 3-3-33364.). But drum roll for this species is not characteristic.

Gray yellow is perfectly adapted to life in the forests - but this makes it vulnerable to environmental changes. The giant woodpecker needs extensive fodder areas and old thick trees in which you can hollow out a large hollow. Unfortunately, people are quickly destroying the forests of South and Southeast Asia for the sake of wood, the expansion of farmland and palm plantations, so that there are less and less suitable places for gray yellow. It is not surprising that the number of this species is falling. According to some reports, only from the 1990s to the 2010s it decreased by 30–70%. No one knows the exact numbers, but ornithologists find gray jellas less and less.

From some countries this species has already disappeared - for example, in Singapore its last time was 3-33333 was observed. in the 1970s. When in May 2018 a single female was again met there - most likely, a migratory individual from neighboring Malaysia - this created a sensation among local bird lovers. True, she was delayed by less than two weeks. In countries and regions where large tracts of forest are preserved, for example 3-3-3133. Cambodia and Myanmar , gray is still usual, however, such places in Asia are becoming less and less. Based on available data, International Union for Conservation of Nature 3-3-3137. assigned this species status vulnerable ( Vulnerable , VU).


The largest woodpeckers are

In addition to sulfur, they are yellow to the genus Mulleripicus named after the German zoologist Salomon Mueller , refers to several more smaller island species. Left - the red-faced is yellow (3-3-33367. 3-3-3168. Mulleripicus fulvus 3-3-33364. 3-3-33368.), Inhabiting Sulawesi and a number of neighboring islands. In the center and on the right are - North Philippine (3-3-33367. 3-3-3174. Mulleripicus funebris 3-3-33364. 3-3-33368.) And South Philippine yellow (3-3-33367. 3-3-3178. Mulleripicus fuliginosus 3-3-33364. In the past, the last two species were combined into one. Photo © Nguyen Juan from flickr.com , © Djop Tabaranza from hbw.com , from the site pinterest.ca


The disappearance of vast old-growth forests under the pressure of man is a problem for many large woodpeckers. It was it that became destructive for two species of these birds, which were previously considered the largest representatives of the family. Both of them lived in North America and belonged to the genus 3-3-33367. Campephilus [/i] (in literal translation from Greek - “lovers of larvae”).

The first of them is imperial woodpecker (3-3-33367. C. imperialis 3-3-33368.), Which inhabited the mountain pine forests of the 3-3-3203 ridge. Western Sierra Madre in the northwest of Mexico. The habitat of this species ranged from 1675 to 3050 meters above sea level. The imperial woodpecker is relatively little known, but it was he who was the largest of the woodpeckers known to science: the length of his body reached 56-60 cm, and the weight - up to 700 grams. Ornithologists did not have time to study the biology of these birds well, however, according to the observations of ornithologists, they ate large larvae of xylophagous insects and often fed in family groups of 3-4 individuals. To find enough food, such a group had to wander around an area of about 25 km 3-3-3205. 2 .


The largest woodpeckers are

A pair of imperial woodpeckers, a male (3-3-33367. Above 3-3-33368.) And a female (3-3-33367. Lower 3-3-33368.). Figure © Don Eckelberry from audubon.org


Until the middle of the 20th century, the imperial woodpecker was a common, albeit not numerous species within its range, but then large-scale logging started in its native forests. First of all, old thick pine trees were cut down, which provided woodpeckers with food and housing. There is also evidence that logging companies considered large woodpeckers to be pests that damage valuable wood. Of course, this is a fallacy, since the imperial woodpeckers were only interested in dead trees. However, the locals were paid for their murder. The birds were shot as well coated their favorite trees with poison.

By the 1950s, the number of the imperial woodpecker had fallen sharply: the last reliable evidence of it dates back to the 1950s. Although unconfirmed reports of encounters with this bird continued to be received until 2005 many ornithologists are 3–3–3233. sure that the species died out no later than the 1990s, since there were almost no suitable old-growth forests left for it. The International Union for Conservation of Nature is in no hurry to declare the imperial woodpecker to have disappeared - while it is number in the category of species on the brink of extinction ( Critically endangered , CR). Nevertheless, even if a tiny population miraculously survived in the forests of the Western Sierra Madre, it would not be easy to find, because a significant part of this area is controlled by drug cartels that grow hemp and opium poppy. As noted in his book Imperial Dreams naturalist Tim Gallagher ( Tim Gallagher ), the chance of being killed here is much higher than finding the imperial woodpecker.

The female imperial woodpecker rises along the trunk of a durango pine (3-3-33367. 3-3-33252. Pinus durangensis 3-3-33364. 3-3-33368.). This is the only video with this view. The original film was shot in 1956 by amateur naturalist William L. Rhine, but scientists did not know about its existence until 1997. A modern expedition to the shooting site has shown that local forests have been logged several times, and locals have not seen imperial woodpeckers since the 1960s, 3-3-33369.

The story of the second largest woodpecker is white-billed ( C. principalis ), Which reached 48–53 cm in length and weighed 450–570 grams, is much better known to the general public and very similar to the history of the imperial woodpecker. This bird once lived in swampy forests throughout the southeastern United States (subspecies 3-3-33367. C. p. Principalis 3-3-33368.), As well as in the lowland and mountain forests of Cuba (subspecies 3-3-33367. C. p. Bairdii 3-3-33368., Which some researchers 3-3333267 consider 3-33364 as a separate species). After finishing US Civil War the native forests of the white-headed woodpecker began to be actively developed and cut down for the sake of wood, and in just a few decades the territories suitable for life were reduced to small fragments and could no longer support its existence. The last officially recorded meeting with the white-billed woodpecker dates back to 1944. In Cuba, the species lasted longer, but after 1987 most likely, extinct here.


The largest woodpeckers are

White-billed Woodpeckers. Left The male is shown, and right - females. Drawing from the site vtwildlifebiology.blogspot.com


For some time, the International Union for Conservation of Nature considered the white-billed woodpecker extinct, however, starting in 2000 it was 3–3–3295. translated in the category of endangered species. And from 2004 to 2008 reports of new observations of this bird periodically came from the US states 3–3–3297. Arkansas and Florida . Unfortunately, it is likely that all fresh meetings are mistakes of observers who mistook the legendary bird of the widespread and slightly similar, but smaller woodpecker - 3-3-33301. crested yellow ( Dryocopus pileatus ). In addition, no clear photographs or good videos were presented. So the hope for the survival of the species is vanishingly small.

As we can see, all three of the largest species of woodpeckers faced similar problems. Two of them, as a result, most likely disappeared, and the third, gray is yellow, while it survives, possibly due to a wider range. However, many other woodpeckers also begin to die out quickly when the forests in which they live disappear. Examples include the Korean subspecies white-bellied are yellow (3-3-33367. Dryocopus javensis richardsi 3-3-33368.), The number of which decreased to several tens of individuals, or 3-3-33311. Okinawan woodpecker ( Dendrocopos noguchii ) - its range, originally limited to the island Okinawa , has now been reduced to a small forest.


The largest woodpeckers are

In this photo you can compare the size of the imperial woodpecker (3-3-33367. On the left 3-3-33368.), White-billed woodpecker (3-3-33367. In the center 3-3-33368.) And crested yellow. The latter species is still widespread in North America and is often confused with the white-billed woodpecker. Photo from the site vtwildlifebiology.blogspot.com


The loss of charismatic birds such as large woodpeckers is sad in itself. However, woodpeckers also perform important ecosystem functions - from controlling insect populations to creating hollows in which other animals can live. Without them, the already-affected forest ecosystem runs the risk of breaking ties and a series of new extinctions. This means that caring for the conservation of woodpeckers can contribute to the survival of many species.


The largest woodpeckers are

Yellow ( Dryocopus martius ) Is the largest woodpecker in the fauna of Russia: the body length of this bird reaches 42–49 cm and the body weight is 250–450 g. Although such large woodpeckers often suffer from deforestation, the yellow tree is still common on most of its vast range. Photo © Sergey Kolenov, Trans-Volga Region, Chuvashia, September 12014


Photo from the site flickr.com .

Sergey Kolenov

27 апрель 2020 /
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