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The hierarchy of clown fish

The hierarchy of clown fish

In this frame from the BBC documentary about life in the oceans Blue Planet II clown fish Amphiprion polymnus joined forces to move the coconut shell closer to the sea anemone. The female will lay eggs on a solid substrate, and they will develop under the protection of sea anemones.

Clown fish live in symbiosis with sea anemones, or sea anemones 3-3-3114. (see picture of the day Clown fish in anemone ). They are combined into groups, the number of fish depends on the size of the anemone. Clowns cooperate to do complex work together: for example, to drag coconut shells or shells to the anemone. Together they cleanse anemone and drive off 3–3–337. butterfly fish wanting to feast on her. Clowns can be quite aggressive, protecting their territory and native anemone from the invasion of competitors: females are especially belligerent towards other females, and males towards other males commensurate with them.

The hierarchy of clown fish

Clown fish Amphiprion polymnus in anemone 3-3-3119. Stichodactyla haddoni [/i] . Photo © Kary Mar from flickr.com

Typically, a group of clown fish includes a breeding pair and up to four mates who are not directly involved in breeding. Members of the group are not related to each other, 3-3-3371. according to genetic analysis. This is curious in that it does not fit into the expectations of the concept. Related selection 3-3-3114. . According to this concept, if the individuals themselves do not breed, then their efforts should be aimed at helping their closest relatives to reproduce.

The group has a strict hierarchy. The uppermost step belongs to the female, she can allow herself aggressive attacks against other members of the group, she is also the main defender of the nest (this is a clutch of several hundred eggs, which the male takes care of). A step below is the male spouse. While they are both alive, the couple remains in a monogamous relationship, producing offspring several times a year. The next steps of the hierarchical ladder are occupied by assistants who are not involved in reproduction, between which a strict linear system of mutual subordination is also built. It is very easy to understand who takes what place in the group: subordinate individuals are always smaller than those that are higher in the hierarchy. This prevents aggression within the group.

Moving up the steps of the hierarchy is possible only if the individual, who previously occupied the next step, died (or disappeared). Then the fish grows up a bit, but no more than this, given the presence of more important people. Thus, the growth of clown fish (as well as puberty) is determined more by social factors than by real age - this is really an unusual phenomenon. All these processes are controlled by through hypothalamic-pituitary system hormonal regulation.

The sounds that clowns use when communicating also help maintain subordination in the group. These sounds are made using jaw movements and 3–3–385. gill covers . The female reinforces her high-status position with special clicks. Males produce slightly different sounds that differ in duration, frequency, and other parameters.

Clown fish together move the coconut shell to anemone. The clicks produced by the female

are audible.

Clowns - protandric 3-3-3114. hermaphrodites, they are all born males. But if for some reason the female disappears from the group, then after about two weeks the older male changes sex and becomes the female himself, taking the post of queen. Now he (that is, she) will lay eggs. Well, the male following him gets the opportunity to become king and father for the next offspring. The transformation of a male into a female begins. with changes in the brain that lead to the release of the hormones 3-3-33101. pituitary gland causing rearrangements in gonads (sex glands): the female part of the gonads, in which the sleeping eggs are located, matures, and the testicles undergo complete resorption. This is due to a change in the activity of 3-3-3105. aromatase in the brain, and then in the gonads. Aromatase is an enzyme that converts androgens (male sex hormones) in 3-3-3109. estrogens 3-3-3114. (female sex hormones). Changes in the brain cause changes in the behavior of the fish, which should now assume the role of leader and protector of the colony.

So what about the cartoon about Nemo does not correspond to reality (see picture of the day Clown fish in anemone )? Firstly, the children of clown fish are not immediately born so bright and beautiful, but blossom as they grow older. Secondly, children really go on a long voyage (as shown in the cartoon), but this does not bother their parents at all: adult clowns are attached to their home for the rest of their lives, and children are left to their own devices from birth. And thirdly, as we see, dad after the death of his mother had to become a mother himself.

Shot from the BBC Blue Planet II movie.

Tatyana Romanovskaya

04 июнь 2020 /
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