Animal number one is


Animal number one is

Here is an illustration from the book Karl Clerk "Swedish Spiders" ( Svenska spindlar / Aranei svecici , PDF, 58.9 Mb). And the spider is depicted on it. Araneus angulatus (in Fig. 1 - an immature male, in Fig. 2 - a female, in Fig. 3 - the location of the eyes, characteristic of the whole family). In a sense, this species can be considered the number one animal: it was he who was the first of all to receive his current (3-3-3337. Valid 3-3-33460.) Scientific name.

Oddly enough, this taxon was not described by Karl Linney , and his relatively little-known contemporary (and compatriot) is Karl Clerk. The clerk worked all his life as a clerk - a tax collector in the administration of the city of Stockholm - and was engaged in science in his spare time from his main job. Even his portraits were not preserved (it is possible that the portrait of Clerk from the back, painted specifically for this note 3-3-3343. By the acarologist 3-3-33460. Anastasia Antonovskaya, is the only image of this researcher in the world so far). How did it happen that some clerk was (and rightfully!) Ahead of Linnaeus himself?


Animal number one is

Carl Clerck (1709-1765). Drawing © Anastasia Antonovskaya


Karl Klerk was born in 1709 in Stockholm in a poor noble family, he was two years younger than Karl Linnaeus. In 1726 at the age of 17 the Clerk enrolled in Uppsala University (the oldest university in Sweden and throughout Scandinavia, in which Linnaeus studied from 1728 later, from 1750 to 1772 who headed it as rector). But the clerk did not study at the university for long: due to financial difficulties in connection with the death of his father, in 1727 he was forced to leave his studies and return to Stockholm. In 1731 he received a position in the city administration, which he held until the end of his life. It is claimed that the clerk became interested in the natural sciences quite late, only in 1739 when he heard a Linney lecture in Stockholm. Subsequently, the clerk corresponded with Linnaeus, who greatly appreciated the scientific work of the younger colleague and contributed to his election in 1764 (unfortunately, shortly before his death) as a member of 3-3-3371. Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences .


Animal number one is

The butterfly described by Linnaeus, named by him in honor of the Clerk - Lyonetia clerkella (Linnaeus, 1758) (originally Phalaena clerkella ). Photo © Donald Hobern from flickr.com


Animal number one is

The title page of Clerk’s book “Swedish Spiders”, published in Stockholm in 1757 with a circulation of 496 copies. This is one of the first monographs devoted to the regional fauna of a certain group of living organisms 3-3-33467.

In 1757 the Clerk published the main scientific work of his life - the aforementioned book, the full title of which is 3-3-33465. Svenska Spindlar uti sina hufvud-slagter indelte samt under nagra och sextio sarskildte arter beskrefne och med illuminerade figurer uplyste, pa Kongl. Vetensk. Societ. i Upsala befallning utgifne [/i] / Aranei Svecici, descriptionibus et figuris aeneis illustrati, ad genera subalterna redacti, speciebus ultra LX determinati, auspiciis Regiae Societatis Scientiarum Upsaliensis (“Swedish spiders, divided into major genera and described as more than sixty species and illustrated with color drawings, under the auspices of the Uppsala Royal Scientific Society[of which the author was a member]”). Most of the 170 pages of this book are divided into two halves: at the top - the text in Swedish, at the bottom - in Latin. Of the sixty-odd species of spiders described in detail in the book, 54 recognized by modern arachnologists (spider specialists) are valid. Some of the names are considered synonyms for other species described by the Clerk, and some are not taken into account, since it is impossible to reliably establish which species is known today that is hidden under the description (the Clerk collection, unfortunately, has not been completely preserved).

The method used by the Clerk was generally borrowed from Linnaeus. In those days, the Linnaean approach to taxonomy was not yet generally accepted, but soon gained worldwide recognition. After the book of Clerk, in 1758 the tenth edition of Linnaeus’s book was published in the same publishing house. "System of nature" ( Systema naturae ). This work had such an enormous impact on the development of systematics that it was he who, after a considerable circulation and who took a place on the tables of a significant part of the actively working natural scientists of that time, was taken as the starting point for the zoological nomenclature (that is, the names of animals). According to the adopted in the XX century “The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature” 3-3-33460. , conditionally it is believed that this book was published on January 11758 (although in fact it was published later), and the names proposed in it take precedence over any others. In this regard, thousands of animal species, especially those common in Northern Europe, have Linnean scientific (Latin) names. If someone described them before the tenth edition of the System of Nature, his (this someone's) descriptions are not taken into account, and if later - by default (with some exceptions) they are considered Linnean junior synonyms and are not used as valid .

And only for one work, published before 1758 the code makes an exception - for Clerk's Swedish Spiders. Linnaeus, in the tenth edition of the System of Nature, also described a certain number of species of spiders (39), but he did this far less thoroughly and thoroughly than Clerk did. Therefore, the international community of zoologists also made this unique exception to the above rule after lengthy discussions: it was decided to conditionally assume that the Clerk’s book was also published on January 11758 but at the same time has priority over the book of Linnaeus. That is how the very first species described in Swedish Spiders is Araneus angulatus Clerck, 1758 (after the name of the species consisting of two words, the surname of the author of this name and the conditionally recognized year of the first description are given) and became “animal number one” - a species whose name can in no way be the junior synonym of any other, being older than all others without exception names. What kind of animal is this?


Animal number one is

Original drawings by Karl Clerk, on the basis of which the engraver prepared illustrations for the description of "animal number one" - the spider Araneus angulatus. The immature male depicted in Fig. 1 the clerk caught on June 181756 on June 27 the spider reached puberty, and lived with the clerk until his death on August 20 of the same year. Image from an article by T. Kronestedt, 2008.3-3r3459. Carl Clerck and what became of his spiders and their names


View Araneus angulatus (in Russian - angular cross) belongs to the family orbiting (Araneidae) - those whose cobwebs people first of all imagine when it comes to spiders. The teneta (3-3-3171. Hunting nets 3-3-33460.) Of these animals are a flat structure of stretched radial spider webs, between which there is a sticky spiral thread. Like the vast majority of spiders, Araneus angulatus - a predator that preys mainly on flying insects. And although all the spiders weaving the hunting nets do not see well, for them this does not become a problem, because they do not need it! Thanks to various hairs and spikes on his legs, even sitting in the middle of the web, the spider feels its smallest vibrations and, as soon as the prey gets into the network, rushes to it from all eight legs.

This species is common almost the entire Palearctic , so if you live in the non-tropical part of Eurasia, you can quite find it on a walk in the forest. Distinguish it from an equally widespread close relative, 3-3-3179. common cross ( Araneus diadematus Clerck, 1758), you will be helped by bulging angular tubercles in the upper part of the abdomen, for which he received his name "angular" ( Angulatus ) Cross. Latin generic name Araneus simply means “spider”, and the crosses of representatives of this genus are called in Russian for the characteristic pattern on the abdomen.


Animal number one is

Immature male, legs tightened in a defensive position, and female Araneus angulatus. Photo © Jean-Philippe Taberlet from araneae.nmbe.ch


The males of this species, like many other species of spiders, are smaller than females, their abdomen is less voluminous, since they have no task to lay eggs. It is possible to distinguish a male from a female by palpuses - the copulative organs that are located on males on specially modified extremities - pedipalps located in front of walking legs. The male alternately inserts one or the other pedipalpa into the female genitalia and injects sperm into the female’s testicles.


Animal number one is

Female Araneus angulatus near its web. Photo © Jean-Philippe Taberlet from araneae.nmbe.ch


Spiders - the largest detachment of the class by the number of species known to science. arachnids (Arachnida): More than 48000 species have been described. Arachnids, in turn, are included in the group 3-3-33249. chelicerae (Chelicerata), that is, animals whose front (located immediately in front of the pedipalps) limbs are transformed into specific oral appendages - chelicera 3-3-33460. . Together with millipedes , crustaceans and insects (as well as extinct 3–3–3259. trilobites 3–3–3460.) chelicerae are included in the largest type of animals in terms of the number of species (and biomass) - Arthropoda (3–3–3261. arthropods 3–3–3460.).

In addition to the order of spiders, arachnids include the familiar 3-3-33265. pincers , scorpions , haymakers , as well as many amazing and relatively little-known creatures: frins , salpugi , false scorpions and some others.

The system of living creatures used by biologists, as is known, often changes, and even large groups are sometimes transferred from one group to another. Spiders are no exception. Ancient Greeks starting from Aristotle , attributed spiders (as well as almost all terrestrial arthropods) to asekomes. In the Middle Ages, crustaceans began to be attributed to insects, that is, the word insects (in Latin Insecta, Greek translation ??????, which means "notched") called almost all of the animals that are now called arthropods. Only in the 19th century only hexapods were called insects, and at the end of the 20th century even some wingless hexopods were excluded from insects (in particular, 3-3-33281. 3-3-33460 collembol.).

Possible ancestors of arthropods, including spiders, were previously considered creatures similar to 3-3-33285. annelids and apparently related to this group, if not belonging to it. This hypothesis is described, in particular, in the classic textbook “Invertebrate Zoology” 3-3-33287. Valentin Alexandrovich Dogel . With the advent of molecular phylogenetics 3-3-33460. (a method that allows us to assess the degree of kinship of organisms by comparing the sequences of 3-33291. nucleotides 3-3-360. in their genes), scientists were able to find out that everything, apparently, was not so. Now it is believed that the number of relatively close relatives of arthropods (which sometimes include, in addition to trilobites, chelicerae, millipedes, crustaceans, and insects, 3-3-33293. Onychophore 3-3-33460. And 3-3-33295. Tardigrade 3-3-33460.) Include 3-3-33297. roundworms . Ring-shaped ones, despite some external and internal similarities with arthropods, turned out to be closer to 3–3–3299. mollusks .


Animal number one is

Phylogenetic tree of arthropods. Image from biomolecula.ru , which is a translated into Russian illustration from the relatively recent Articles from the journal Nature on the evolution of arthropods based on molecular data 3-3-33467.

Karl Linnaeus, who is rightly considered the father of modern biological systematics, in 1758 united all spiders into the genus 3-3-33465. Aranea, [/i] included, along with millipedes, crustaceans, and some wingless hexapods, insects (Insecta) wingless (Aptera) class, are included in the order. . As far back as 1757 the clerk considered spiders as a separate group, with the name Aranei, including the only genus in it. Araneus . And although the priority of the Clerk is obvious with the name of the genus, then with the name of the order there is still no consensus on how to name spiders: Aranei or Araneae (a name that has taken root in 20th century literature). The first is the plural from Klerkovsky Araneus, the second - from Linnevsky Aranea (for example, in the tenth edition of the System of Nature, although in some of his works Linnaeus used the same version of the name as Clerk, who, apparently, borrowed it from one of the Linnaean publications) . The aforementioned “International Code of Zoological Nomenclature” does not apply to titles with a rank above the superfamily, that is, the requirement formally contained in the code to recognize the Clerk’s priority over Linnaeus does not apply to the squad, although it would be logical to extend it to the squad squad. In the West, they often use the Araneae variant, while many domestic experts prefer the more logical and fairer Aranei variant. One of the leading Russian arachnologists Kirill Glebovich Mikhailov in his manual " General arachnology. Short course "Writes that at the International Zoological Congress in 1948 it was proposed to restore the priority of the name of the Clerk and later to call the Aranei detachment, but, alas, not all zoologists heeded this recommendation.

After publishing his remarkable monograph on the Swedish spiders, Clerk continued to study arthropods, focusing his attention on the next project. This time he was attracted by butterflies, most of which, however, he did not describe, but only portrayed. Apparently, he was also interested in them in those years when he was especially active in spiders: his first scientific publication was devoted to butterflies - a note published in 1753: description 3-3-33349. poplar ribbon (rewritten in 1758 by Linnem, who therefore is now considered the author of the name of this species). Until his comparatively early death from consumption in 1765 (Linnaeus, who was two years older than the Clerk, survived it by 13 years), the Clerk managed to publish (in 1759 and 1764) two parts of his new work entitled “Images of Rare Insects "( Icones insectorum rariorum ). In the parts prepared by the Clerk from insects, only butterflies are represented. For some of them, images are shown not only of adults, but also of caterpillars. It is known that Linnaeus greatly appreciated this publication. Scientific illustrations, not inferior in quality to modern ones, were rare in the days of Clerk and Linnaeus. In particular, in many works of Linnaeus himself with illustrations, things were not well.


Animal number one is

One of the pages of Clerk’s illustrative work “Images of Rare Insects”: caterpillars and adult individuals (in most cases males and females) moths 3-3r3460.


And also in 1761 in the periodical "Proceedings of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences" ( Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar ) a small note by the Clerk in Swedish on methods for collecting and keeping spiders was published. So even after completing his research, the Clerk, while working on a new scientific project, did not forget the spiders.

We will not forget about them, and we. Among terrestrial arthropods, spiders are clearly inferior to butterflies and beetles as an object of interest for amateurs, and there are fewer professional arachnologists than entomologists, and even less than specialists who professionally study some groups of insects that are not as rich in species as the spider squad. For example, there are less than 20000 species of butterflies known (and spiders, recall, more than 48000), but much more work on butterflies has been published.

Some (although relatively few) species of spiders can be dangerous to humans. Perhaps that is why so many people do not like and are afraid of them. In literary and cinematic works of art, spiders are often portrayed as disgusting and dangerous creatures. In terms of the prevalence of such images, only snakes can compete with spiders (another remarkable group of animals that were unlucky to fall out of favor with humans). Such works contribute to maintaining the hostility to spiders in people and, probably, may be one of the reasons why so few novice animal lovers pay special attention to spiders. And from this ultimately follows the lack of knowledge of spiders.


Animal number one is

Shot from the movie trilogy of Peter Jackson The Hobbit (2012–2014): Martin Freeman in the role of Bilbo Baggins fights with giant spiders. Unfortunately, spiders often appear in fiction as disgusting monsters. We do not think they deserve this


I would like the prejudices associated with spiders to be a thing of the past, and arachnophobia (fear of spiders and hostility to them) would become less common. This should be helped by popular science works about these animals and the positive images of spiders in works of art. It seems that such images are more common lately. Tolkien has a giant spider Shelob and her somewhat shredded descendants are vicious and disgusting creatures, but in books written several decades later, Joan Rowling Attitude to giant spiders is not so straightforward. In the tale of the younger contemporary of Tolkien, the American writer Alvin Brooks White Charlotte’s Web Spider Charlotte is a positive character. And our (and Rowling) contemporary Hayao Miyazaki already in the 21st century he shot the short animated film "The Water Spider Monmon" (???????, Water Spider Monmon ) about silver spider - the most interesting species described by the Clerk. Argyroneta aquatica (Clerck, 1758), represented in Japan as a separate subspecies - Argyroneta aquatica japonica Ono, 2002 . The water spider in this cartoon is also definitely a positive hero.


Animal number one is

A water spider looks out from its underwater dwelling at branched crustacean . Shot from the cartoon by Hayao Miyazaki “The Water Spider Monmon” (2006) about a representative of one of the species described by Karl Clerk — the silver spider, found in Sweden, Japan, and Russia. Image from Museum Studio Ghibli www.ghibli-museum.jp in Tokyo, only in which (and by no means always) you can legally watch this cartoon


So, let's not forget about spiders and we will not be biased towards them. And let's not forget the humble clerk named Karl Clerk - an outstanding researcher who managed to do not so much in science, but worked at such a high level that he surpassed Linnaeus in his relatively narrow field. A truly inspiring example.

Image from a book published in 1757 by Karl Clerk “Swedish Spiders” (Svenska spindlar), directly borrowed from an article in which it is reproduced: T. Kronestedt, 2010. Carl Clerck and what became of his spiders and their names //European Arachnology, pp.105–117 (proceedings of the 24th European Congress of Arachnology held in Bern in August 2008).

Peter Petrov , Evgenia Propissova

16 июнь 2020 /
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